What is Selenium?
Selenium is one of the most widely used open-source Web User Interface automation testing tools. It was introduced by Jason Huggins in 2004 at Thought Works. Selenium is capable of supporting automation across different browsers, platforms, and programming languages. Selenium can be easily run and tested on platforms such as Windows, Linux, Solaris, and Macintosh.
It also supports Operating Systems for mobile applications like iOS, Windows mobile, and android. Programming languages supported by Selenium are done through drivers for each language. Languages supported by Selenium are C#, Java, Perl, PHP, Python, and Ruby-nowadays, Selenium Web driver is most popular with Java and C#. Selenium test scripts can be coded in any of the programming languages and can be run directly in most of the web browsers. Browsers that are supported by Selenium are Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, and Safari.
For whom the tutorial is for?
This Selenium tutorials is designed for beginners with no or little experience in automation. Selenium tutorial provides basic and advanced concepts of Selenium and the usage of Selenium testing in automation. Our Selenium tutorial is designed for both beginners and professionals.
Selenium Basic Terminology:
Before learning selenium, first, take a look at software testing and how automation is done in software testing. It gives you a strong basement while learning the concepts of Selenium.let’s first understand some of the key concepts associated with Automation testing of an application. Every software development group needs to carry out a series of tests before launching the final product into the market.
Test engineers try to catch the defects or bugs before the software product is launched in the industry. Even with the best manual testing processes, there’s always a possibility that the final software product is left with a defect or is unable to meet the end-user requirement. Automation testing is the best way to increase the effectiveness, efficiency, and coverage of your software testing.
Automation testing uses specialized tools to automate the execution of manually designed test cases without any human intervention. Automation testing is done by accessing the test data, controlling the execution of tests, and comparing the actual result against the expected result. Consequently, It also generates detailed test reports of the system which is under test. Automation testing covers both functional and performance tests on an application.
Since selenium has more beneficial uses all the industrial experts test their products with selenium automation testing. Some of the features of selenium are listed below:
- Selenium is an open-source, cost-free, and portable Web testing Framework.
- Selenium IDE provides a playback and record feature for authoring tests without the need of learning a test scripting language.
- It can be treated as the leading cloud-based testing platform which helps testers to record their actions and export them as a reusable script which is a simple and easily usable interface.
- It supports parallel test execution which reduces time and increases the efficiency of tests while working on bigger projects.
- Selenium can be easily integrated with frameworks like Ant and Maven for source code compilation.
- Selenium can also be integrated with testing frameworks like TestNG for application testing and generating reports while testing a project.
Selenium is not just a single tool but it is a suite of software where each catering to different testing needs of an organization while working with the projects. It has four main components:
- Selenium Integrated Development Environment
- Selenium Remote Control
- Selenium Grid
- Selenium WebDriver
Selenium IDE is a tool that helps in developing Selenium test cases. It is considered as easy to use Chrome and Firefox extension and is generally the most reliable method to develop test cases for testing a project. It records the user’s actions in the browser using the existing Selenium commands, with parameters defined by the context of the web element. This saves more time and it is an excellent way of learning Selenium script syntax. The main feature of Selenium IDE is that the tests recorded via the plugin can be exported in different programming languages like Java, Ruby, Python, etc.
Selenium Grid is a testing tool that runs the tests on various machines against different browsers. It is part of the Selenium suite that is expert in running multiple tests across different browsers, os, and machines. It also can be connected with Selenium Remote Control by stating the browser version, browser, and os as per our choice. It helps to specify these values through Selenium RC capabilities. In Selenium Grid, one server will act as a hub.
The test will communicate with the hub to get access to browser instances. The hub has a list of servers that provide access to browser instances and tests use these instances. The main benefits of Selenium Grid are it allows parallel testing and also allows managing different browser versions and browser configurations. Multiple online platforms provide Selenium Grid online which can be accessed to run your Selenium automation scripts. For example, LambdaTest.
Selenium WebDriver was founded by Simon Stewart in 2006 by a Thought Works consultant in Australia. Selenium WebDriver was the first cross-platform testing framework that controls the browser at the OS level. Selenium WebDriver is considered as a successor to Selenium RC. Selenium WebDriver’s work is to accept commands and send them to a web browser. This is implemented through a browser-specific driver, which can send commands to a browser and retrieves the results. Each driver can access a browser application. Web driver selenium tutorial available for firefox Driver, Chrome Driver, Internet Explorer Driver, MicroEdge, Opera Driver, Safari Driver, HTML Unit Driver, etc.
Some of the limitations of selenium are listed below:
- Selenium requires high skill sets to automate testing more effectively.
- Since Selenium is open source software, community forums should be contacted to resolve the technical issues.
- Automation testing cannot be done on web services like SOAP or REST using Selenium.
- Must know at least one supported programming language to create test scripts in Selenium WebDriver.
- It does not have any built-in Object Repository like UTF/QTP to maintain objects or elements in a centralized location. This can be overcome by using the Page Object Model.
- Selenium does not have any inbuilt reporting capability so it depends on plug-ins like JUnit and TestNG for test reports.
Since testing plays a major role in providing quality products, all industries depend on automation testing to test the product quickly and error-free. Selenium is the latest automation testing tool that is widely used by the industry. With the selenium tool, it is easy to achieve a quality product where it is done by Selenium training institute in Chennai. I hope this tutorial will help you to understand the basic concepts of selenium testing.